sâmbătă, 1 decembrie 2018

ROMANIA 100


Romania in the Year of the Centennial

Daniel Dragomirescu

The Romanian people has existed on the territory bordered by the Danube, the Carpathians and the Black Sea ever since its formation. As a modern European people it is as old as the French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese peoples and older than the Latin peoples that surround it. Yet, unlike other Latin people, because of specific reasons, the Romanian people could not organize itself into a state in the first centuries of its existence, following the retreat of the Roman Empire from Dacia (271 AD). Once organized into a powerful kingdom, that of the Dacians, the Carpatho-Danubian-Pontic territory came out of the Roman era without kings or emperors, without a proper administratrive and territorial organization, without state institutions and an army, as the old Dacian state had been destroyed by Traian and replaced with the state structures of the Roman Empire, and after the retreat of the Roman administration and army to the south of the Danuble there was a generalized collapse. The Dacian state could not be rebuilt, because, more than 160 years after the disappearance of the Dacian kingdom, the traditions of the indigenous state were lost, and the people (a mixture of Dacians and Roman settlers) no longer identified with the age of Burebista (as the Galo-Romans could no longer identify with the age of Vercingetorix), while an alternative model of state organization did not exist and could not be borrowed from our geographical neighbours, which were themselves in a state of anarchy or primitivism. During one generation, all the civilisation of Roman Dacia collapsed, the cities were abandoned and the Dacian-Roman population was forced to go back, in just a few years, to the primitive age. Emperor Aurelian should have left in Dacia an indigenous political leader supported by a local army, which should have ensured the organization of the abandoned territory and should have defended it. Thus, lacking the force and cohesion to form their own state, the proto-Romanians and then the Romanians were forced to accept, starting with the invasions of the Carps and the Goths, their rule and had to experience, throughout the centuries, all kinds of pre-statal organizations and put up with all kinds of Asian tribe leaders pretending to be military and political leaders over their national territory.

A phenomenon that was to leave a profound mark on the Romanian psychology started to take shape. The invasions of the migratory tribes continued, their rule succeeded one another, yet the Romanian people managed to preserve their identity. One way or another they assimilated the migratory people left in the Carpatho-Danubian space. They became neither Avars, Visigoths, Pechenegs and Cumans, nor Slavs, Turks or Fanar Greeks, to the disappointment of the great neighbouring powers which, like fault lines, were colliding on the Romanian territory.

The Ottoman Empire suffered defeats as a result of these collisions between geopolitical plates and had to gradually limit its area of influence, while the Habsburg empire took over Bukovina and the Russians managed to get Bessarabia, extending their sphere of influence over these parts of our national territory. This wouldn't have probably happened if the Romanian principates had not been ruled, back then, by princes appointed by the Ottomans. This was a situation which repeated itself, which Romanians had already gone through before, during the early Middle Ages, when they had not appeared on the Byzantine maps as a separate state, because they found themselves under the rule of strong migratory tribes. In Wallachia and Moldavia there were the Cumans and in Transilvania the Magyars that had come from Altelcuz. Being originally migratory and warfaring peoples, the Cumans and the Magyars had a better political and millitary organization than the sedentary indigenous Romanians, who were an agragrian-pastoral people dissipated across the land and lacking a political and administrative centralization as well as an army that should have protected them.

With the endless waves of Goths, Visigoths, Huns, Gepids, Avars, Pechenegs, Bulgars and others that roamed from the east to the west over the Romanian territory, it would have been impossible to lay the foundations of a Romanian state, without it being destroyed overnight, like in the legend of the Master Manole. Helped by favourable circumstances in the early Middle Ages, the Magyars settled not just in Pannonia, but also on a vast part of the Transylvanian territory, which after a few generations they came to consider as part of their national territory. Their bad luck was that, unlike the Romanized population they found in Pannonia, the Romanian population in Transylvania could not be magyarized in a significant percentage. Less lucky, the Cumans, who were in brotherly relations with the Magyars, were violently dislocated by the Great Tatar-Mongolian invasion in 1241, and on the Byzantine maps there was no longer Cumania instead of Wallachia. On the other hand, the Magyars, although they were also dislocated by the new Asian invaders, and their kingdom was almost totally destroyed, as it is attested, among other sources, in Monk Rogerius's “Carmen miserabile”, still managed to re-establish their kindgom, which was to last for a couple of centuries, until 1521, when it fell prey to the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, a sultan whose particular ambition was to turn all Magyars into Turks, in order to extend Islam into the heart of Europe. Yet the Turks encountered, as the Magyars had done in Transylvania, a stubborn nation, which they could not convert or ethnically assimilate, thus being forced to abandon their Central-European pashalik, which could not overlap with Saint Steven's crown.

The union of the Romanian principates (24th January 1859) was the result of a normal historical development in an international politically favourable context (the Anglo-French-Turkish policy of blocking the Russian expansion towards the Balkans, which led to the defeat of the Czarist Empire in the Crimean wars 1853-1856). Thus, Romanians managed to lay the foundations of their national state, which, starting with 1866, came to be called Romania and was recognized as such internationally. At that time roughly in the West other national states were formed, Germany and Italy, though a similar process of unification. No one can claim that Germany and Italy are recent phenomena on the map of Europe. Italians and Germans, as well as Romanians, have always existed on their national territories, where they have gone through various forms of state organization, from provinces and principates to unitary national states in the modern period.

The first World War, dubbed by the pre-communist historiography The War for the Reunification of the Country, led, by a historical determinism, to the formation of Great Romania, by the successive union of Bessarabia (March 1918), Bukovina (November 1918), Transylvania and Banat (1 December 1918) with the Old Kingdom, which also comprised Southern Dobruja (the Cadrilater). Outside the country were left a few small territories inhabited by Romanians, such as the Serbian Banat and the northern part of Maramures. And besides its current neighbours, Great Romania had a border, in the north, with Czechoslovakia and Poland, two states that reappeared on the world map, after a long period when their national territories had been divided among neighbouring empires.

Romania's entrance in the war on the side of the Entente in August 1916 proved to be a correct and responsible choice, because, although the kings of the country belonged to a German dynasty (The Hohenzollerns), everything pleaded in favour of our country's alliance with France. The whole forty-eight generation had been educated in Paris, and the Union of 1859 was accomplished with the aid of Napoleon the 3rd. The ascension of Prince Carol on the Romanian throne in 1866 had been also due to the advice of the French emperor, who wanted a powerful kingdom at the mouth of the Danube, a kingdom which would strenghten the French influence in Europe. Unfortunately, the insufficient military training with which Romania came into the war on the side of the Entente and the strategical errors that some of our military leaders had made ended the campaigns on the Danube and the Transylvanian fronts and allowed the enemy troops, led by general Mackensen to occupy, in a short time, the southern part of the country, with the capital, up until the Siret. It is true that this defeat occured as the Czarist army contributed only slightly to the war in which it had engaged, and after the Kerensky goverment came to power started to disband, thus turning into a real danger for the Romanian soldiers behind the frontline. Taking refuge in Jassy together with the Romanian army and government, king Ferdinand ruled for two years over only one third of the initial kigdom, as it had been when Romania had entered the war with the high hopes of seeing its territory reunited with Transilvania following a rapid and successful offensive.

It was a miracle that the King and the government managed to learn their lessons from the disaster of the year 1916 and managed to keep the Central Powers along the line of the Siret, while bringing the army to an efficient state, with the help of valuable millitaries such as Alexandru Averescu, Eremia Grigorescu, Constantin Prezan and others. In the 30s, when he came back to visit Romania, Marshall Mackensen remembered the spectacular resurrection of the Romanian army, which “ seemed to have disappeared” before (during the fights in Oltenia and Wallachia). An important role in this reorganization was played by the French millitary mission, led by general Henri Mathias Berthelot and the combat force of the Romanian soldiers, who, in the battles at Mărăşeşti, Mărăşti and Oituz, literally put into practice the order “One should not pass this point”.

Even if these victories on the battlefield could not lead to the immediate liberation of Romania from under foreign occupation, because of the Treatise of Brest-Litovsk, where the Central Powers and Lenin's goverment agreed to come to a separate peace, they prevented the enemy from occupying the rest of the country and allowed the army to re-enter the war at the end of 1918, when the German and Austro-Hungarian empires collapsed, due both to the failures on the Western front, and to the resistance that the two great powers met with in Romania, which forced them to make more millitary and financial efforts than they had imagined they could put up with.

Far from being a miracle or an accident, the forging of the national state on the 1st December 1918 was the reward that the Romanian people deserved naturally and logically for its continuous existence and persistance on the national territory, in spite of the hardships of history.

La Roumanie dans l’année du Centenaire 

Le peuple roumain existe depuis toujours sur le territoire circonscrit entre le Danube, les Carpates et la Mer Noire. Comme peuple européen, il est aussi ancien que les peuples français, espagnol, italien, portugais et bien plus ancien que les peuples non-romaniques qui l’entourent. Mais, par différence avec les autres peuples romaniques, par des raisons particulières, le peuple roumain n’a pu s’organiser en une formation d’Etat plus importante dès ses origines, suite à l’abandon de la Dacie par l’Empire Romain (271 av. J. C.). Jadis organisé sous la forme d’un royaume puissant, celui des Daces, le territoire de la Roumanie est issu de l’époque romaine sans rois ni empereurs, sans institutions d’Etat, sans une armée, parce que l’ancien Etat dace avait été demantelé par Trajan et remplacé à tous les niveaux par des structures d’Etat de l’Empire Romain et que, après la retraite de l’administration et de l’armée romaine au sud du Danube, il se produisit un effondrement général, pour lequel la population romanisée n’eut pas de solution alternative, ni de remède, au rapide remplacement des structures impériales romaines par des structures autochtones. On ne pouvait plus reconstituer L’Etat dace, parce que, plus de 160 ans après la disparition du royaume des Daces, les traditions constituant l’organisation de l’Etat dace avaient été perdues, la population (un mélange de Daces et de colons romains) ne pouvait plus s’identifier aux temps de Buerebista et Decebal (tout comme les Gallo-Romains ne pouvaient plus s’identifier aux temps de Vercingetorix) et un modèle different d’organisation de l'Etat n’existait pas et ne pouvait non plus être emprunté aux voisinages géographiques se trouvant eux-mêmes dans une configuration anarchique ou primitive. Il eût été davantage intéressant que l’Empereur Aurelianus laissât en Dacie un chef politique autochtone aidé par une armée locale, qui eût pu assurer l’existence d’Etat du territoire abandonné et le défendre.

Ainsi, le peuple roumain dut s’accommoder aux nouveaux temps mais, manquant de force et de la cohésion nécessaires pour se donner une organisation d’Etat propre, se vit obligé d’accepter, à partir des invasions des Carpes et des Goths, la domination de ceux-ci, dut experimenter, pendant des siècles, toutes sortes de désorganisations, supporter toutes sortes de chefs de tribus asiatiques aux prétentions de maîtres politiques et militaires ainsi que sur leur propre territoire. De la façon dont put se dérouler l’existence des Roumains tout au long de ces tristes siècles, il n’existe pas, malheureusement, un seul “Carmen miserabile” pour nous faire bénéficier d' un temoignage, cependant, d’une manière ou d’une autre, ils réussirent à survivre, à se developper, de manière continue, comme peuple de souche romanique dans la marge orientale du continent européen.

Ainsi, de cette façon, se déroula, plus ou moins, l’histoire des Roumains pendant des siècles. Les invasions des migrateurs s'étendirent sur de longues périodes aussi, et leurs différentes formes de domination se succédèrent sans cesse, mais le peuple roumain ne disparut pas de l’histoire. Il assimila, d’une manière ou d’une autre, tous les migrateurs restés sur le territoire carpatho-danubien. Les Roumains ne devinrent ni Avares, ni Vizigoths, ni Pécénegues, ni Coumans, ni Slaves, ni Turcs, ni Grecs de Phanarion, à la déception des pouvoirs voisins (Autriche, Turquie, Russie) qui, comme des plaques tectoniques, se heurtaient sur le territoire roumain.

De ces collisions de tectonique politique, l’Empire Ottoman souffrit de plusieurs défaites et dut restreindre progressivement sa zone d’influence, tandis que l’Empire Autrichien gagna la Bucovine, et les Russes réussirent à leur tour à s’emparer de la Bessarabie, en élargissant leurs sphères d’influence sur le territoire national. Peut-être que cela ne se serait pas passé ainsi, si les pays roumains n’avaient pas été conduits par les princes phanariotes, nommés par la Porte Ottomane. C’était la répétition de la situation connue par les Roumains au début du Moyen Âge, quand ils n’apparaissaient pas sur les cartes byzantines comme habitants de leur propre État, se trouvant sous la domination de certains peuples migrateurs - Dans la Wallachie et la Moldavie, La Coumanie et les Coumans, et dans la Transylvanie, les Magyars venus d’Atelcuz (sud de la Bessarabie). En étant à l'origine des peuples de migrateurs guerriers, les Coumans et les Magyars disposaient d’une organisation politique et militaire meilleure, en comparaison, par rapport aux Roumains sédentaires et autochtones, cependant demeurés en état de dissipation agro-pastorale, sans une centralisation politique et administrative, ni une armée défensive.   

Avec les vagues incessantes des Goths, Vizigoths, Huns, Avares, Bulgares etc., qui traversèrent, d'est en ouest le territoire roumain, il eut été, à proprement dit, impossible d'empiler une brique sur l’autre en une construction roumaine d’Etat, sans qu’elle ne soit détruite pendant la nuit, comme dans La Légende du Maître Manole. Les Roumains de toutes les provinces ne prirent néanmoins pas la fuite vers les montagnes et forêts, en laissant un pays abandonné derrière. Non, ils restèrent dans leur village et s'adaptèrent aux conditions de vie toujours en évolution dans l’ancienne Dace romaine.

Ainsi les Magyars s'imposèrent et se fixèrent, non seulement dans la Pannonie, mais aussi sur une large aire du territoire transylvain, si bien qu'ils finirent, après quelques générations, par les considérer comme une partie de leur territoire national. Leur malchance fut que, par distinction de la population romanisée qu’ils avaient trouvée dans la Pannonie, la population roumaine de Transylvanie jamais ne fut, elle, magyarisée en pourcentage signifiant. Les Coumans se trouvant dans des relations de fraternité avec les Magyars, furent disloqués de manière violente par la Grande Invasion Tartaro-Mongole de 1241, si bien que, sur les cartes des Byzantines, la Coumanie cessa d’apparaître, au lieu de la Wallachie. D’autre part, les Magyars, bien qu’ils fussent aussi brisés par les nouveaux envahisseurs asiatiques, tel que le témoigne le moine Rogerius dans son “Carmen miserabile”, réussirent pourtant à récupérer et à refonder leur royaume, qui continua d’exister encore quelques centaines d’années, jusqu’en 1521, lorsqu’il fut anéanti par l’Empire Ottoman, pendant le règne de Soliman le Magnifique, un sultan dont l’ambition bien particulière fut de transformer tous les Magyars en Turcs, pour étendre l’Islam jusqu’a Vienne. Mais à leur tour les Turcs tombèrent, comme les Magyars dans la Transylvanie, sur une nation résistante, qu’ils ne réussirent pas à assimiler, se voyant obligés d’abandonner leur pachalik central-européen qui ne pouvait pas se superposer à la couronne de Saint Étienne.    L’Union des Principautés Roumaines (datant du 24 janvier 1859) a été le résultat d’une évolution historique normale, en un contexte politique international favorable (la politique anglo-franco-turque de neutralisation de l’expansion russe dans la région des Balkans, qui a conduit à la défaite de l’Empire Tsariste dans la Guerre de Crimée, 1853-1856). Les Roumains ont réussi de cette manière a poser la pierre angulaire de leur État national qui, en 1866, a reçu le nom de “Roumanie” et a été reconnu comme tel au plan international. Approximativement dans la même période, en Occident, sont apparus comme États nationaux l’Allemagne (Empire) et l’Italie (Royaume), par un processus similaire d’unification. Personne ne saurait affirmer que l’Allemagne et l’Italie constituent des apparitions de date récente sur la carte d’Europe. Les Italiens, les Allemands et les Roumains ont existé depuis toujours sur leur territoires nationaux, où ils ont connu différentes formes d’organisation – des provinces et principautés aux États nationaux de l’époque moderne.

La Première Guerre Mondiale, nommée par l’historiographie roumaine d’avant la période communiste “Guerre de Réunification de la Nation”, a conduit par un déterminisme de l’histoire à la fondation de la Grande Roumanie, suite à l’union de la Bessarabie (mars 1918), de la Bucovine (novembre 1918), de la Transylvanie et du Banat (le 1er décembre 1918) avec l’Ancien Royaume, qui comprenait aussi la Dobrogée méridionale (Le Quadrilatère). Sont demeurées en-dehors du pays quelques petites régions habitées par les Roumains, tel que le Banat yougoslave et la partie de nord de Maramures. Et hormis ses voisins actuels, la Grande Roumanie côtoyait, au nord, la Tchécoslovaquie et la Pologne, deux États qui réaparaissaient sur la carte du Monde après une longue période d'existence, cependant que leurs territoires nationaux se trouvaient partagés entre les empires voisins.

L’entrée de la Roumanie dans la guerre à côté de l’Entente en août 1916 s’est avérée une option droite et responsable, car, bien que les rois du pays appartenaient à une dynastie allemande (de Hohenzollern), tout plaidait en faveur de l’engagement du pays aux côtés de la France. Toute notre génération de révolutionnaires de 1848 s'était formée à Paris et l’Union de 1859 avait été réalisée grâce au soutien de Napoléon IIIème. Même la venue du prince Carol en Roumanie en 1866 résultait toujours des conseils reçus de la part de Napoléon III, qui souhaitait à l’embouchure du Danube un royaume puissant, de nature à renforcer l’influence française au niveau européen. Malheureusement, la formation militaire insuffisante au moment où la Roumanie entra en guerre aux côtés de l’Entente et les erreurs d’ordre stratégique ont arrêté l’offensive sur le front de la Transylvanie et permis aux armées ennemies, commandées par le Maréchal Mackensen, d'occuper, en quelques mois, la Capitale et toute la partie de sud du pays, jusqu’à la rivière de Siret ; il est vrai que cette défaite a pu avoir lieu dans des circonstances péjoratives, selon lesquelles l’armée tsariste disposait d' une faible contribution dans les combats et, aussi puisque après l’installation du gouvernement de Kerenski, s'est produit un processus irréversible de décomposition, aboutissant à un réel danger guettant les militaires roumains de l’arrière. Réfugié à Yassy avec son armée et le gouvernement du pays, le roi Ferdinand se vit régner, pendant deux années, sur un royaume réduit à un tiers de ce qu’il avait été au moment de l’entrée du pays dans la guerre, lorsque tout le monde, très optimiste, s’attendait à voir la récupération rapide de la Transylvanie par une action militaire à la Napoléon.                  

Tout à fait remarquable fut le fait que le Roi et son gouvernement réussirent à tirer des conclusions positives du désastre de l’année 1916, à figer les armées de la Triplice sur la ligne de Siret et à reconstituer en quelques mois l’armée roumaine, dirigée par des militaires de valeurs, tel que les généraux Alexandru Averescu, Eremia Grigorescu, Constantin Prezan et autres. Pendant les années 30, revenu en visite en Roumanie, le maréchal Mackensen se souvenait de cette spectaculaire résurrection de l’armée roumaine, qui auparavant avait failli “disparaître”. Un rôle important dans cette réorganisation fut joué par la Mission Militaire Française d’Henri Mathias Berthelot et la force de combat des militaires roumains qui, au cours des batailles de Mărăşti, Mărăşeşti, Oituz, ont appliqué ad litteram l’ordre “Par ici on ne passe pas”.      

Bien que ces victoires obtenues sur le champ d’honneur n’eussent été de nature à conduire tout de suite à la libération de la Roumanie de l’occupation étrangère, à cause du Traite de Brest – Litovsk, où les Centrales et le gouvernement de Lénine ont convenu de conclure une paix séparée, elles ont empêché l’ennemi d’occuper le reste du pays et nous ont permis surtout de conserver notre armée pour qu’elle revienne sur le champs d’opérations militaires à la fin de 1918, quand les empires allemand et autrichiens-hongrois se sont effondrés, à cause de leur défaite sur le front ouest, mais aussi en raison de la résistance que les deux grands pouvoirs ont rencontré en Roumanie.

Loin d’avoir été un miracle ou un hasard, la réalisation de l’État roumain national unitaire du 1er décembre 1918 a été la récompense que le peuple roumain a bien mérité pour sa permanente existence et persistance sur son territoire national, en dépit de tous les adversités de l’Histoire.


Traducere în limba franceză de Noëlle Arnoult
Traducere  în limba engleză de Roxana Doncu

sâmbătă, 24 noiembrie 2018

ORIZONT LITERAR CONTEMPORAN 6 (68) / 2018
























CUPRINS. CONTENTS. ÍNDICE

Editorial
Daniel Dragomirescu, “România în anul Centenarului. La Roumanie dans l’année du Centenaire”, p. 3

Bibliotheca Universalis
Ramona-Elena Dună (România), “Să fim copii pentru Dumnezeu”, p. 5

Orizonturi critice
Gheorghe Glodeanu (România), “Aventura spirituală a romanului”, p. 7
Gilvaldo Quinzeiro (Brazilia), “O trágico é não se conhecer”, p. 9
Francisco da Cunha Silva Filho (Brazilia), “Wars that have proven to be useless”, p. 10

Orizonturi epice
Carlos M. Federici (Uruguay), „Accidente de ruta”, p. 12
Daniel Fernández Corchs (Uruguay), “El muro”, p. 15
Arturo Hernández Fuentes (Mexic), “Para este momento ya me ha olvidado”, p. 18

Orizonturi poetice
Raymond Walden (Germania), p. 19
John Tischer (Statele Unite-Mexic), p. 21
Michael White (Statele Unite), p. 21
Donald Riggs (Statele Unite), p. 23
Gregory Vincent St.Thomasino (Statele Unite), p. 24
Paul Mein (Regatul Unit), p. 26
Mike Bannister (Regatul Unit), p. 27
Kees van Meel (Olanda), p. 29
Wild Roberts (Canada), p. 30
Tomislav Marijan Bilosnić, p. 31
Haris Adhikari (Nepal), p. 32
Eduardo Sanguinetti (Argentina), p. 33
Leonard Ciureanu (România-Italia), p. 35
Ana-Maria Oncescu (România), p. 36
Elena Ţăpean (România), p. 38

Orizonturi franceze, p. 39 - 67
Noëlle Arnoult, Marie Cholette (Canada), Frédéric Fort, Gérard Angaud, 
Philippe Barbier, Olivier Lechat, Pierre Montfort, Georges de Rivas, Jean Taillabresse
Dana Lang, Pascal Dague, Boulmé Romain, Ernest Koffiga Kavege (Togo – Gabon), 
Josette Gallou, Jean-Sylvestre Thépenier, Jacklynn Beckman, Rosa Favella, 
Souhila Chidiac, Jean-Claude Sartelet, Cicéron Angledroit

Index 2018, p. 68

Traduceri
Roxana Doncu, Elena Ţăpean, Laura-Mihaela Stan, Daniel Dragomirescu, 
Noëlle Arnoult (Franţa), Željka Lovrenčić (Croatia), Raymond Walden (Germania)



vineri, 16 noiembrie 2018

HORIZONTES MEXICANOS: ARTURO HERNÁNDEZ FUENTES


 “Para este momento ya me ha olvidado”

Ella dijo que sí, debería de haber estado emocionado pero la costumbre de que los viejos trucos funcionaran me impedía darme cuenta de eso, nunca he sido del tipo que le gusten las historias de amor, sin embargo seguir sus pasos esa noche entre la lluvia fue irresistible.

Subió a mi auto y lo noté de inmediato, era una chica especial, no como las anteriores. A pesar de que sus labios gruesos no hacían juego con el resto de su cuerpo, eso siempre se podía arreglar, pensé en ese momento.

Éramos el uno para el otro, desde el primer instante en que nos conocimos. El roce de sus manos frías explorando los lugares a los que no le permitía a nadie más llegar, me daba aún más la certeza de que no estaba equivocado.

Un par de horas pasaron y fueron suficientes para conocer todas las cicatrices que me quiso mostrar, la buena noticia era que había lugar para muchas más. Tenía un Monstruo en rojo grabado en la espalda que le quedaba a la perfección, algo que en un futuro valdría la pena conservar.

Llegando al túnel, me di cuenta que era hora de la dura y difícil despedida. No quería que fuera fácil, la ocasión ameritaba algo diferente, le pregunté si estaba dispuesta a salir del coche, correr y hacer su mejor esfuerzo por dejarme atrás.

Al escuchar mis palabras hizo un largo silencio, observó hacía la ventana y el retrovisor, me abrazó súbitamente y respondió que no.

Abrí los ojos de nuevo y pensé que había sido un sueño, intenté moverme pero ahí estaba, mi chica especial, solo que ahora ya no era como la recordaba.

Había decidido que estuviéramos juntos sin consultármelo, pero el tiempo y las obvias razones la hicieron distante y ausente, el monstruo de sangre se apoderó de ella y se alejó de mí.

La última vez que la vi me cortó profundo y salió por la puerta, dijo que me sentiría mejor, pero yo sabía que estaba mintiendo. Me engaño a mí mismo en pensar que volverá y que este no es el final de nuestra historia, tener ese anhelo ficticio hace que resista un día más.

Siendo sincero ha pasado mucho tiempo, la oscuridad permanece y la luz nunca regresó, así que tarde o temprano tendré que resignarme y aceptar, que para este momento… ya me ha olvidado.

(del libro Estación Kimura, 2018)


“În acest moment, ea m-a dat uitării”

Ea a spus că da, ar trebui să fie emoţionată, dar obiceiul că vechile trucuri vor funcţiona m-a împiedicat să-mi dau seama de asta, n-am fost niciodată genul căruia îi plac poveştile de iubire, totuşi, urmându-i paşii în acea noapte pe când ploua, a fost irezistibil.

S-a urcat în maşina mea şi, am observat deîndată, era o tipă specială, nu ca cele dinainte. Deşi buzele ei groase nu se potriveau cu restul corpului său, asta se putea rezolva, m-am gândit în clipa aceea.

Eram făcuţi unul pentru altul, din prima clipă când ne-am cunoscut. Atingerea mâinilor sale reci explorând locurile unde altora nu le permiteam să ajungă, îmi întărea certitudinea că nu mă înşelam.

Trecură doar câteva ore şi a fost de ajuns ca să îi cunosc toate cicatricele pe care a vrut să mi le arate, vestea cea bună fiind că era loc pentru mult mai multe. Avea un Monstru în roşu tatuat pe spinare, care îi venea de minune, ceva care, în viitor, merita osteneala de a fi păstrat.

Ajungând la tunel, îmi dădui seama că era clipa grea a despărţirii. Nu voiam să fie uşor, ocazia merita ceva diferit, am întrebat-o dacă era dispusă să coboare din maşină, să alerge şi să facă efortul de a mă lăsa în urmă.

La auzul cuvintelor mele se făcu o tăcere adâncă, am văzut prin fereastră şi retrovizor, m-a îmbrăţişat brusc şi mi-a răspuns că nu.

Deschisei ochii din nou şi mă gândii că fusese un vis, încercai să mă mişc, dar ea rămânea acolo, fata mea specială, numai că acum nu mai părea să fie o amintire.      

Hotărâse că vom rămâne împreună fără să-mi ceară părerea, dar timpul şi motivele evidente  o făceau distantă şi absentă, monstrul de sânge se agăţă de ea şi se îndepărtă de mine.

Ultima dată când am văzut-o m-a emoţionat profund şi a ieşit pe uşă, a zis că m-ar fi simţit mai bine, dar ştiam că minte. M-am înşelat pe mine însumi gândindu-mă că se va întoarce şi că ăsta nu era sfârşitul poveştii noastre, păstrând acea dorinţă fictivă, făcând-o să mai reziste încă o zi.

Ca să fiu sincer, a trecut multă vreme, întunericul rămâne şi lumina nu s-a reîntors niciodată, aşa că, târziu ori devreme, va trebui să mă resemnez şi să accept că în acest moment... ea m-a dat uitării.    

(din cartea Staţia Kimura, 2018)
Arturo Hernández Fuentes al lanzamiento de su libro


Perfil. Profil

Arturo Hernández Fuentes (1982, Monterrey - Nuevo Leon, México). Autor de relatos, novelas y ensayos. Promotor de los valores culturales méxicanos a HLC. Licenciado en Educación Primaria. Libros: Los últimos recuerdos de una vida pasada (novela, 2015), La chica que le disparó al Sol (vol. I, 2016), Estación Kimura (2018). Colaboraciones en las revistas “Trinando” (Colombia), “Extrañas Noches” (Argentina), “Infinitus” (México) etc. Arturo Hernández Fuentes, cuyo nombre recuerda al lector el conocido novelista Carlos Fuentes, tiene en común con el ilustre escritor la vocación narrativa, y con Emiliano Zapata, las aspiraciones sociales. Es uno de los más vallosos escritores mexicanos de la nueva generación. Publicado en HLC: 2, 5/2011, 1, 4/2016, 3 / 2017, 6 / 2018.

Arturo Hernández Fuentes (1982, Monterrey - Nuevo Leon, Mexic). Autor de povestiri, romane şi eseuri. Promotor al valorilor culturale mexicane la OLC. Licenţiat în pedagogie. Cărţi: Ultimele amintiri ale unei vieţi trecute (roman, 2015), Fetiţa care a dispărut în Soare (vol. I, 2016), Staţia Kimura (2018). Colaborări la revistele “Trinando” (Columbia), “Extrañas Noches” (Argentina), “Infinitus” (Mexic) etc. Arturo Hernández Fuentes, al cărui nume îi aminteşte cititorului de cunoscutul romancier Carlos Fuentes, are în comun cu ilustrul scriitor vocaţia narativă, iar cu Emiliano Zapata, aspiraţiile sociale. Este unul dintre prozatorii mexicani de valoare din noua generaţie. Publicat în OLC:  2, 5/2011, 1, 4/2016, 3 / 2017, 6 / 2018.

Traducere şi prezentare de Daniel Dragomitrescu

luni, 12 noiembrie 2018

NEW IN BIBLIOTHECA UNIVERSALIS. NUEVO EN BIBLIOTHECA UNIVERSALIS


















169. Petru Istrate (Romania), "Candori adolescentine. Teenage Candors"
170. Georges de Rivas (France), "Orphée. Zéphir en azur. Orfeu. Zefir în azur”
171. Luía Ángel Marín Ibáñez (Spain), “Opera omnia”

BIBLIOTHECA UNIVERSALIS. 
ALL THE WORLD IN A LIBRARY.

joi, 8 noiembrie 2018

POETIC DIALOGUES: JOHN TISCHER - J. M. WHITE (UNITED STATES)
















             
JOHN TISCHER

Joke

Jesus walks into a bar... sits next to a drunk. They nod to each other. Bartender comes over and asks Jesus: "What will you have?"
"An empty shot glass, please."
Jesus gets his glass... looks at it, and, by itself,  it fills with whiskey. Jesus drinks the whiskey, puts the glass down, and, again, it fills back up with whiskey. The drunk looks at the bartender and says:
"I'll have what he's having."


Glumă

Isus intră într-un bar... se aşază lângă un beţivan. Se salută unul pe altul. Barmanul îşi face apariţia şi îl întreabă pe Isus:
“Cu ce să vă servesc?”
“Cu un pahar gol, vă rog”.
Isus primeşte paharul... se uită la el şi, de la sine, îl umple cu whiskey. Isus bea whiskey-ul, pune jos paharul şi, din nou, îl umple cu whiskey. Beţivanul se uită la barman şi zice:
“Voi avea şi eu ce are el”.  


J. M. WHITE

Jokerman

initiation is like walking on water
like fighting the war in the Bhagavad-Gita
like taking the boat to the other shore
                like searching for the holy grail
                      like surviving the flood in the Ark
                            like visiting the oracle at Delphi
                                     like being in the garden of Eden

initiation is contact with the axis mundi
which is a repository of wisdom
at the core of the world’s mystical traditions
we have been separated from this center
and are trapped in linear time

initiation unveils the primordial state
where everything is perceived from the point of view of eternity

initiation offers a glimpse of the prototype of humanity
of the germ
of the embryo
of the chrysalis
that is our inner-most inheritance
which is shrouded by temporality
appearing inaccessible
and ungraspable

in the West even the possibility of initiation is hidden
people have not the slightest clue
the passions that rule our world
are transitory and contingent
those who seek initiatory experience
learn the action of nonaction
that is the Great Peace
that comes from the investiture
of the perspective of eternity


Născocitorul de glume

iniţierea este ca mersul pe ape
ca războiul din Bhagavad-Gita
ca îmbarcarea pe un vas pentru a ajunge
pe malul celălalt
      precum căutarea Sfântului Graal
                precum supravieţuirea în Arca lui Noe
                         precum o vizită la Oracolul din Delphi
                                 precum viaţa în Grădina Edenului

iniţierea este contactul cu axis mundi
un depozit de întelepciune
în inima tradiţiilor mistice ale lumii
de care am fost despărţiţi
şi care sunt prinse în timp linear

iniţierea dezvăluie starea primordială
unde totul este perceput
din punctul de vedere al eternităţii

iniţierea oferă un licăr din prototipul umanităţii
în germene
din embrionul
crisalidei
care este moştenirea noastră cea mai lăuntrică
care este învăluită de temporalitate
părându-ni-se inaccesibilă
şi incomprehensibilă

în Vest chiar posibilitatea iniţierii este ascunsă
oamenii nu au nici cea mai mică idee
că pasiunile care stăpânesc lumea
sunt tranzitorii şi contingente
acela care caută experienţa iniţierii
învaţă acţiunea inacţiunii
care este Marea Pace
care vine din investirea
cu perspectiva veşniciei


Dum-dum profile

John Tischer (1949, Chicago, United States). Poet, prose writer, bohemian figure. After 2000 he moved to Tepoztlan, Mexico. In John Tischer opinion: "It's no wonder truth is stranger than fiction....fiction has to make sense." he have been writing poetry since the 70's. A few published in “Windhorse”, a Buddhist literary mag. She also was on "Sleepless Nights", an electronica music radio show, KGNU, Boulder, Colorado, a dozen times in the late 1990’s when he read my poetry.” Part of his poetic creation may be read on his personal blog “Eggtooth Breaks Open”, a more than remarcable blog. Published in CLH: 4/2011, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6/2012, Ant. 3/2012, 1, 2, 4, 5/2013, 2, 6/2014, 1, 5, 6/2015, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6/2016, 1, 2/2017. Books in “Bibliotheca Universalis”: Brownian Life (poetry, 2015). In preparation: Café at the End of Time (novel).

John Tischer (1949, Chicago, Statele Unite). Poet, prozator, figură boemă. După anul 2000 s-a stabilit în oraşul Tepoztlan din Mexic. A început să scrie poezii din anii ’70. Câteva scrieri i-au fost publicate în “Windhorse”, o revistă literară budistă. A fost prezent în cadrul “Sleepless Nights” (“Nopţi albe”), un spectacol de muzică electronică, la radio KGNU din oraşul Boulder, Colorado (SUA), unde a citit din creaţia sa poetică. Scrierile sale pot fi consultate pe blogul personal “Eggtooth Breaks Open”, un blog care îşi depăşeşte condiţia.  Publicat în OLC: 4/2011, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6/2012, Ant. 3/2012, 1, 2, 4, 5/2013, 2, 6/2014, 1, 5, 6/2015, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6/2016, 1, 2/2017. Cărţi în “Bibliotheca Universalis”: Viaţă browniană (poezii, 2015). În pregătire pentru tipar: O cafenea la sfârşitul timpului (roman).


J. M. White (born in 1948) is an anti-authoritarian, anti-religious, anti-establishment dues paying member of the underground.  His short stories, poems, interviews, essays and reviews have appeared in magazines worldwide. He did graduate study in Phenomenology at Duquesne University and holds an MA in Philosophy from Vanderbilt.  He has attended summer sessions of the Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics at Naropa Institute, where he studied with Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs and Gregory Corso.  He has been a student of Tibetan Buddhism for over twenty years and has studied with the Dalai Lama, Khenchen Palden Sherab Rinpoche, Keith Dowman and Namkhai Norbu. He has traveled widely including visiting sites such as Lhasa, Tibet, Stonehenge and Avebury in England, Carnac and the Vezere Valley in France, Machu Picchu in Peru, Chichen Itza and Uxmal in Mexico, Chaco Canyon, Poverty Point and Cahokia in the United States; as well as the pueblos of the Zuni, Hopi and Taos Nations.  He lives in rural Tennessee. The poetry collection Confidential Advice for the Unconventional debunks several contemporary myths related to identity and offers a series of poetic clear-cut reflections on philosophical concepts such as time, truth, nature, language or beauty. It is a bilingual collection inspired by esoteric thought, with adiacent pages in English and Romanian. Showing the poems in parallel with their translation functions as an invitation for bilingual readers to visualize the translator’s choice and think about other possible versions. Translation is considered here an open process.

J. M. White (născut în 1948) este un plătitor de taxe neconvențional, antiautoritarist, antireligios și antiguvern. Povestirile, poeziile, interviurile, eseurile și recenziile sale au apărut în reviste din lumea întreagă. A absolvit studii de licență în fenomenologie la Universitatea Duquesne și deține un master în filozofie de la Universitatea Vanderbilt din Statele Unite.  A participat la sesiunile de vară ale Școlii Jack Kerouac pentru Poetici Imateriale de la Institutul Naropa, unde a studiat cu Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs și Gregory Corso.  A cercetat budismul tibetan mai bine de douăzeci de ani și a studiat cu Dalai Lama, Khenchen Palden Sherab Rinpoche, Keith Dowman și Namkhai Norbu. A călătorit mult și a vizitat locuri precum Lhasa în Tibet, Stonehenge și Avebury în Anglia, Carnac și Valea Vezere în Franța, Machu Picchu în Peru, Chichen Itza și Uxmal în Mexic, Canionul Chaco, Poverty Point și Cahokia în Statele Unite, precum și sate din rezervațiile de indieni americani Zuni, Hopi și Taos.  Locuiește în zona rurală a statului Tennessee. Volumul de poezie Sfaturi confidențiale pentru neconvențional demontează câteva mituri contemporane despre identitate și ne oferă o serie de reflecții clar conturate poetic despre concepte filozofice precum timp, adevăr, natură, limbaj sau frumusețe. Este o colecție bilingvă inspirată de gândirea ezoterică, în care paginile în engleză și română sunt adiacente. Dispunerea poeziilor în paralel cu traducerea lor funcționează ca o invitație pentru cititorii bilingvi de a vizualiza alegerea traducătoarei și de a lua în considerare și alte posible versiuni. Traducerea este privită aici ca un proces deschis.

Traducere de Daniel Dragomirescu

marți, 6 noiembrie 2018

UNIVERSAL HORIZONS: HARIS ADHIKARI (NEPAL)



















Love for Peace

I am
in love with Peace!
but she’s not in love with me.

Who else or what else
is not?

This culture of
camouflage that I’m part of,
I detest it.

This part of the world that did not listen to me,
that I did not listen to.
These hollow
cores of culture, fruits of maladies.

Ring of pollution. Depletion of
moral layers.

Is it the decadence of
religions? Masquerades
of terrorism? Dramatizations
of dirty politics? Abductions of
Truth and Love?

Or this
Villain Time … This Villain Time
that is mad for Power—Power of Victory—
so mad
that it forcibly corners
and then
commits a brutal rape of Innocence—if it doesn’t get
what it wants …

Or is it
the Providence of Divine Grace?
The Providence that just
looks on (enjoying?)
the agonies and cries
of so many poor beings …
like me.


Dragoste pentru Pace

Eu sunt
îndrăgostit de Pace!
dar Pacea nu este îndrăgostită de mine.

Cine sau ce altceva oare
nu ar fi?

Această cultură a
camuflajului, a cărei parte sunt,
eu o detest.

Această parte a lumii care nu mă ascultă,
pe care nici eu nu o ascult.
Acest goale
nuclee de cultură, fructe ale bolilor.

Cerc al poluării. Epuizare a
resurselor morale.

Să fie oare decadenţa
religiilor? Mascarade
ale terorismului? Dramatizări
ale politicii murdare? Ruptură a
Adevărului şi Iubirii?

Sau acest
Timp Ticălos... Acest Timp Ticălos
care este nebun după Putere – Putere şi Succes –
atât de nebun
că forţează limitele
şi apoi
săvârşeşte un rapt brutal al Inocenţei –
dacă nu capătă
ceea ce vrea...

Sau să fie oare
Providenţa Divinei Graţii? Providenţa care doar
contemplă (bucurându-se?)
agonia şi plânsul
atâtor biete făpturi umane...
aşa ca mine.


Profile. Profil

Haris Adhikari, a widely published poet and translator, is a lecturer of English literature and technical communication at Kathmandu University, Nepal. Adhikari has two books of poetry and a book of translation to his credit. Currently, he is working on two more books of poetry (one in English and the other in Nepali) and some works of research on translation. His poems and works of translation have appeared in reputed journals and magazines at home and abroad, both in print and online. He can be reached at: harisadhikari@gmail.com

Haris Adhikari este poet, traducător şi lector de literatură engleză şi de comunicare tehnică la Universitatea din Kathmandu din Nepal. Adhikari a publicat două volume de poezii şi a tradus o carte din literatura de limbă engleză. În prezent, pregăteşte alte două volume de poezie (una în engleză şi alta în nepaleză) şi unele lucrări de cercetare în domeniul traducerii. Poezii şi eseuri ale sale au fost publicate în presa culturală din Nepal şi din străinătate, în formă tipărită pe hârtie şi în format electronic. Poate fi contactat la adresa: harisadhikari@gmail.com

Traducere de Daniel Dragomirescu